Religion and Human Rights in the 21st Century

Religion is the practice of believing in something greater than ourselves. Typically, it involves rituals and devotional observances, and often contains a moral code. In addition, it can be defined as a set of beliefs regarding the nature of the world and the role of some kind of superhuman agency. In some instances, a religion has a distinct social and political context.

Human rights

The relationship between religion and human rights is complex. While most world religions have historically supported repression, violence, and prejudice, they have also played a central role in the modern struggle for universal human rights.


Monotheism is a religion that claims there is only one God. Monotheism is the only religion with a scientific basis. Other religions claim that there are many gods or deities, which are untrue.

Religious diversity

The study of religious diversity is a field that focuses on the richness and diversity of religions. It is different from studies of religious concentration, and has social significance. It is possible to measure the level of religious diversity in a country using an index like the Herfindahl-Hirschman index.

State repression of religion

The ACLED-Religion data show two main patterns of state repression of religion in the 21st century. In countries with low levels of COVID-19 enforcement, the state’s religious repression is usually low. This is the case in Iraq, Iran, and Yemen. Nonetheless, in countries where state authorities used legal means to restrict religious activity, repression levels increased, and they tended to coincide with major religious events.


The dialogue between Xenophanes and religion has several aspects. The first involves Xenophanes’ remarks about the divine nature of God. He asserts that the divine being is not mortal, but is rather an extraordinary force of excellence and power. This argument is often found in the Greek tradition.


Christianity is a spiritual belief system that is open to anyone. According to Pew Research, 2.2 billion people worldwide are professing Christians. In the United States, about 78% of the population is Christian, and 43% of people attend church on a weekly basis.


Hinduism is a philosophical and spiritual belief system. It believes that all people are born with a soul that will reap the rewards of their actions in the next life. This philosophy is based on the Upanishadic concept of the unity of the individual soul with Brahman. It holds that realizing Brahman is the ultimate goal of worship. For this reason, conceiving a child is considered detrimental to salvation.


Judaism is a tradition that focuses on community. As a result, Jews see themselves as a part of a global community. There are many traditions centered around the family and home. It is also very much a blood-related religion, with children of Jewish mothers sometimes considered Jewish.


Buddhism is one of the major world religions. It originated in India in the sixth century BCE and spread throughout Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan. Today, it is practiced throughout the world.


Confucianism is a school of thought developed in ancient China. Its founder, Confucius, wrote nine books that were used for teaching and learning, known as the “Five Classics” or “Four Books.” The texts of Confucius are classified into five basic categories: